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What Is Plant Kingdom Definition

Various forms of parasitism are also quite common in plants, from semi-parasitic mistletoe, which takes only a few nutrients from its host but still has photosynthetic leaves, to completely parasitic brooms and dental mosses, which get all their nutrients through compounds to the roots of other plants and therefore do not have chlorophyll. Some plants, known as myco-heterotrophs, parasitize mycorrhizal fungi and therefore act as epiparasites on other plants. Medicinal plants are a major source of organic compounds, both for their medicinal and physiological effects and for the industrial synthesis of a variety of organic chemicals. [101] Several hundred drugs are derived from plants, both from traditional medicines used in herbalism[102][103] and from chemicals purified by plants or first identified in them, sometimes by ethnobotanical research, and then synthesized for use in modern medicine. Modern herbal medicines include aspirin, taxol, morphine, quinine, reserpine, colchicine, digitalis and vincristine. The plants used in herbalism are ginkgo, echinacea, feverfew and St. John`s wort. The pharmacopoeia of Dioscorides, De Materia Medica, which describes about 600 medicinal plants, was written between 50 and 70 AD and remained in Europe and the Middle East until about 1600 AD. In use; It was the precursor of all modern pharmacopoeias. [104] [105] [106] Weeds are commercially or aesthetically undesirable plants that grow in managed environments such as farms, urban areas, gardens, lawns and parks. Humans have spread plants beyond their natural range and some of these introduced plants become invasive, damaging existing ecosystems by displacing native species and sometimes becoming serious crop weeds.

[Citation needed] Plants do photosynthesis, which means they make their own food molecules using energy derived from light. The main mechanism available to plants to capture light energy is the pigment chlorophyll. All green plants contain two forms of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. The latter of these pigments is not found in red or brown algae. The simple equation of photosynthesis is as follows: in seed plants, the microgametophyte is reduced by a freely living multicellular organism to a few cells in a pollen grain, and the miniaturized megagametophyte remains in the megasporangia, which is bound and dependent on the mother plant. A megasporangia enclosed in a protective layer called an integument is called an egg. After fertilization using sperm produced by pollen grains, an embryonic sporophyte develops in the egg. The integument becomes an envelope of sperm and the egg develops into sperm.

Seed plants can survive and reproduce in extremely dry conditions because they do not depend on open water for sperm movement or the development of free gametophytes. Photosynthesis of terrestrial plants and algae is the ultimate source of energy and organic matter in almost all ecosystems. Photosynthesis, first by cyanobacteria and later by photosynthetic eukaryotes, radically changed the composition of the anoxic atmosphere of the early Earth, which is now composed of 21% oxygen. Animals and most other organisms are aerobic and dependent on oxygen; Those that do not are limited to relatively rare anaerobic environments. Plants are the main producers in most terrestrial ecosystems and form the basis of the food web of these ecosystems. Many animals depend on plants as shelter as well as oxygen and food. [Citation needed] Plants make up about 80% of the world`s biomass at about 450 gigatons (4.4×1011 long tons; 5.0×1011 short tons) of carbon. [86] Plants grown as industrial crops are the source of a wide range of products used in production, sometimes so intense that there is a risk of harm to the environment. [107] Non-food products include essential oils, natural dyes, pigments, waxes, resins, tannins, alkaloids, amber and cork. Plant-based products include soaps, shampoos, perfumes, cosmetics, paints, varnishes, turpentine, rubber, latex, lubricants, linoleum, plastics, inks and gums. Renewable fuels from factories include firewood, peat and other biofuels. [108] [109] Fossil fuels coal, oil and natural gas are extracted from the remains of aquatic organisms, including phytoplankton in geological time.

[110] In contrast, most other algae (e.B. Brown algae/diatoms, haptophytes, dinoflagellates and euglenides) have not only different pigments, but also chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes. They are not close relatives of archaeplastida, which are said to have acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are therefore not even included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they have been in the past. Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and terrestrial plants – form a clade, a group composed of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, green plants have in common the following characteristics: primary chloroplasts derived from cyanobacteria containing chlorophylls A and B, cell walls containing cellulose and food reserves in the form of starch contained in plastids. They undergo closed mitosis without centrioles and usually have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting that they come directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Minerals are also important for plant growth and development, where deficiencies can occur if nutrient needs are not met. [93] Common nutrients competing between plants include nitrogen and phosphorus.

Space is also extremely important for a growing and developing plant. [94] Optimal space makes it more likely that the leaves are exposed to sufficient sunlight and are not overcrowded for photosynthesis to occur. [94] When an old tree dies, there is competition between several trees to replace it. [91] Those who are less effective competitors are less likely to contribute to the next generation of offspring. [91] Plants are primarily photosynthetic eukaryotes from the Plantae kingdom. Historically, the plant kingdom included all living things that were not animals and included algae and fungi; However, all current definitions of plants exclude fungi and some algae, as well as prokaryotes (archaea and bacteria). According to one definition, plants form Ketke Viridiplantae (Latin name for “green plants”), a group that includes flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, horn mosses, liverworts, mosses and green algae, but excludes red and brown algae. Contrary to the belief that plants are always in competition, new research has shown that in a harsh environment, mature plants that protect seedlings help the smaller plant survive. [95] Later, a phylogeny based on the genomes and transcriptomes of 1,153 plant species was proposed. [53] The placement of algae groups is supported by phylogenies based on the genomes of mesotigmatophyceae and chlorocybophyceae that have since been sequenced. [54] [55] The classification of bryophytes is supported by both Puttick et al.

2018,[56] and by phylogenies affecting horn moss genomes, which have also been sequenced in the meantime. [57] [58] Vascular plants first appeared during the Silurian and diversified in the Devonian and spread to many different terrestrial environments. They have developed a number of adaptations that have allowed them to spread to increasingly dry places, especially in the xylem and phloem vascular tissues, which carry water and food through the body. Root systems capable of receiving water and nutrients from the soil also developed during the Devonian period. In modern vascular plants, the sporophyte is usually large, branched, nutritionally independent, and long-lived, but there is growing evidence that Paleozoic gametophytes were as complex as sporophytes. Gametophytes of all groups of vascular plants have evolved to lose size and importance in the life cycle. Plants are often the dominant physical and structural component of the habitats in which they are found. Many Earth biomes are named after vegetation type because plants are the dominant organisms in these biomes, such as grasslands, taiga, and tropical rainforest. [Citation needed] Linnaeus` original classification placed mushrooms in plantae, as they were undoubtedly neither animals nor minerals and they were the only other alternatives.

With developments in microbiology in the 19th century, Ernst Haeckel introduced the new kingdom of Protista alongside Plantae and Animalia, but whether mushrooms were best placed in plantae or should be classified as protists remained controversial. In 1969, Robert Whittaker proposed the creation of the Kingdom of Mushrooms. Molecular evidence has since shown that the most recent common ancestor (concestor) of fungi was probably more similar to that of Animalia than to that of Plantae or another kingdom. [28] The young Jordanian pilot comes from a well-known military family in the kingdom and his uncle is a retired major general. .